Steady flow: the velocity of a fluid particle changes with the position.
In the field of steady flow, devices are particularly suited to teaching measurement of the flow course, pressure distribution and velocity distribution.
In gases there is a difference between flow at constant volume (incompressible) and flow with varying volume (compressible). For larger changes in the fluid’s pressure and temperature the interconnections between pressure, temperature and volume may not be ignored any more. This flow is called compressible.
Pipe systems are generally used to transport fluids. When flowing through a pipe the friction causes the pressure energy of the fluid to fall and the internal energy of the fluid to increase.
Special emphasis on technical issues:
- valve characteristics
- Kvs values.
When liquids flow, flow processes may cause local pressures that are smaller than the corresponding vapour pressure of the liquid. In this case, the liquid evaporates and vapour bubbles are formed. When the pressure re-increases the vapour bubbles implode.
Open-channel flow involves, amongst other things, the management of watercourses for the purpose of navigability, damming of lakes for power generation and/or storage of drinking water and flood protection measures.